### Formula

vn

thermal noise voltage

kB

Boltzmann\'s constant

T

the resistor\'s absolute temperature

R

the resistor value

Deltaf

the bandwidth in hertz over which the noise is measured

vn

thermal noise voltage

kB

Boltzmann\'s constant

T

the resistor\'s absolute temperature

R

the resistor value

Deltaf

the bandwidth in hertz over which the noise is measured

Johnson-Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

kB

T

R

Deltaf

vn

Precision

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