### Formula

Z

the figure of merit for thermoelectric devices with unit of K-1

S

the Seebeck coefficient with unit of V/K

sigma

the electrical conductivity

kappa

the thermal conductivity

Z

the figure of merit for thermoelectric devices with unit of K-1

S

the Seebeck coefficient with unit of V/K

sigma

the electrical conductivity

kappa

the thermal conductivity

The dimensionless figure of merit ZT is formed by multiplying Z with the average temperature ,which is a method for comparing the potential efficiency of devices using different materials. A greater ZT indicates a greater thermodynamic efficiency, subject to certain provisions, particularly that the two materials in the couple have similar Z. ZT is therefore a method for comparing the potential efficiency of devices using different materials. Values of 1 are considered good; values in the 3–4 range are essential for thermoelectrics to compete with mechanical devices in efficiency.

S

sigma

kappa

Z

Precision

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