### Formula

U

the internal energy of the system

A

the Helmholtz free energy

T

the temperature

S

the entropy

U

the internal energy of the system

A

the Helmholtz free energy

T

the temperature

S

the entropy

In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and volume. For such a system, the negative of the difference in the Helmholtz energy is equal to the maximum amount of work extractable from a thermodynamic process in which temperature and volume are held constant.

A

T

S

U

Precision

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